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Synchrotron Mirrors

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Synchrotron mirror sources generate extremely high heat load densities on front-end optics, requiring sophisticated cooling and reflection geometries. Monocrystalline silicon with its high heat load capacity is the preferred material choice for front-end systems.

Small grazing incident angles, in turn, generate a requirement of a 4:1 or 20:1 length-to-width ratio. As a consequence, the geometries and materials are very different from conventional optical components. Conventional polishing techniques can cause rounding on corners of rectangular-shaped optics; therefore, specialized fabrication and polishing techniques have been developed to maintain flatness across the entire rectangular surface.

We design and manufacture our synchrotron mirrors, by hand, in California, United States.


As the original provider of superpolished optical components, we have been producing superpolished surfaces for over 40 years. Our proprietary process serves high volume production requirements as well as small volume, specialized applications.

Superpolished substrates feature surface roughness lower than 1 Å, scratch-dig <5-2, and inspection criteria of up to 320x magnification. The results are low scattering losses and significantly fewer defects. Substrates demonstrate an impressive λ/20 or better surface accuracy.

Our synchrotron optics and research-grade flats are supplied with polished or acid-etched diameters and bevels, adding to the level of cleanliness and durability that can be achieved.

To complement our superpolished surfaces, we offer ion beam sputtered (IBS) coatings which provide very low levels of total loss (absorption and scatter) and exceptional environmental stability.

Our custom optics have enabled scientists to achieve prize-winning results in LIGO, NASA’s Mars Curiosity Sky Crane, and in synchrotron facilities around the world.

Contact us to find out how we can help you.


SpecificationsSynchrotron mirrorsResearch grade flats and mirrors
Substrate materialSiliconFused silica, silicon carbide, Zerodur®
Coating wavelength ranges355 nm–3.2 μm355 nm–3.2 μm
Sizes2–500 mm1–500 mm
High surface qualityScratch-dig <5-2, <1 Å surface roughnessScratch-dig <5-2, <1 Å surface roughness
Wavefront distortionUp to 1/50th wave at 633 nmUp to 1/50th wave at 633 nm
Dimensional toleranceSub-micronSub-micron
Angular tolerances<1 arc second<1 arc second
Clear aperture dimensionsUp to 500 mmUp to 500 mm
Mounted or unmountedOptically contacted, bonded, adhesive-free, customer specifiedOptically contacted, bonded, adhesive-free, customer specified
Slope error<0.5 μRad<0.5 μRad
Country of manufactureUSAUSA

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From high transmission broadband anti-reflection coatings to V-coats for high energy applications, our extensive coating capabilities for precision optical components deliver performance across the spectrum from the UV to the FIR. Take a closer look at our optical coatings service.


We have made a significant investment in metrology equipment to ensure that our customers receive quality, high-performing precision optical components. More details on our metrology capabilities can be found on our metrology page.

Environmental testing

Environmental testing of components and coatings is critical for the assurance of performance in rugged conditions. G&H environmental testing capabilities include MIL-C-675C, MIL-C-48497A, MIL-E-12397, and MIL-M-13508C for endurance against abrasion, adhesion, humidity, temperature, and environmental conditions.

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